Tolerant to heavy metals plants as a component of environmentally friendly technologies

  • Р. А. Алыбaевa Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • С. Д. Атaбaевa Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • С. Ш. Асрaндинa Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • А. Д. Сербaевa Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • В. И. Кружaевa Al-Farabi Kazakh National University

Abstract

Industrial centers are areas of greatest pollution of various media with heavy metals. Near large industrialcenters, large number of heavy metals enter the soil, wherein soils of agrocenoses and cultivatedcrops can be polluted. A long period of self-cleaning of soils and the high cost of their artificial cleaningmake mankind seek for new ways to solve the problem associated with the contamination of soils withheavy metals. The most promising direction in this area is the study of the genetic potential of plants andthe identification of plant objects characterized by a minimum accumulation of heavy metals.The review presents data on the genotypic specificity of the adaptive potential of plants. Differenttypes of plants have different biological characteristics that determine the availability of heavy metals.The flow of heavy metals into plants depends on the characteristics of the absorption of an element bydifferent plant species. Soils characterized by a high polymetallic content of metals are distinguished bythe formation of specific communities.Not only different species, but also varieties of one species differ in ability to accumulate ions ofheavy metals, even with the same concentration in the soil. It is known that the ability to absorb, accumulate,and use chemical elements in plants is genetically determined. The physiological causes of thegenotypic specificity of the absorption of elements of mineral nutrition by plants are ambiguous: theycan be caused by differences, both in the primary mechanisms of ion uptake, and in their subsequenttransport and metabolism.Researchers identify selectively important indicators of technologically resistant varieties: plasticity,duration of vegetation period, yield, size and selectivity of root systems, detoxification and localizationof ecotoxicants in certain parts of the plant. An effective strategy to reduce yield losses is the use of varietiesthat have genes of tolerance or resistance to biotic and abiotic influences.
Published
2018-02-07
How to Cite
АЛЫБAЕВA, Р. А. et al. Tolerant to heavy metals plants as a component of environmentally friendly technologies. Journal of Geography and Environmental Management, [S.l.], v. 46, n. 3, p. 91-106, feb. 2018. ISSN 1563-0234. Available at: <http://bulletin-geography.kaznu.kz/index.php/1-geo/article/view/405>. Date accessed: 21 feb. 2018.
Section
Геоэкология