DIFFERENTIATED EVALUATION OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION COMPLEX OF MANGISTAU REGION TO ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON THE RELIEF
AbstractThe article presents the results of one of the stages of solving a complex theoretical problem in the field of integrated environmental assessment of the territory – the search for methods solving the inverse problem. The essence of the inverse problem is to determine the contribution of an individual industryor individual entity to the anthropogenic transformation of the natural environment in the presence of an available expert assessment of the ecological situation in the region that maps the levels of total impact of all enterprises and all sectors of the regional economy on the ecological situation.The solution of the inverse problem is of great practical importance for objectifying the «polluterи pays» principle, the instrument of which is the system of payments for emissions to the environment. However, the widespread practice of transferring waste on contractual terms to specialized companiesfor their export and processing negates this principle in the field of waste management. An independent assessment of the ecological situation in the region, based on monitoring data, determines the total impact of all enterprises in all sectors of the regional economy and also does not allow assessing thecontribution of individual industries or individual enterprises to total pollution. The work was carried out within the framework of the grant financing project of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 0589 / GF-4 «Development of a method for objectifying expert estimates of the contribution of individual pollution sources to the overall ecological situation of the territory». At the first stage of the research in this direction, a method for generalized solution of the inverse problem was developed and the results of the evaluation of the contribution of the oil and gas producing complex of the Mangystau region to anthropogenic transformation of the ecological situation in the region were obtained. In the proposed article, the second method for solving the inverse problem, which allows to differentially differentiate the implementation of the polluter pays principle, is described in the example of theassessment of the role of OGPC in the anthropogenic transformation of the relief. Since only one of the components of the natural environment is considered, the solution obtained will be private. To obtain an integrated assessment, it will be necessary to carry out similar studies for the remaining componentsof the natural environment and combine them in an integrated (total) solution, taking into account the role of each component in the formation of the environmental situation. Differentiation is performed on the basis of receiving the construction of a grid model in which the areas of contours of each level ofanthropogenic impact within a block are summed and assigned to the center of the block, providing the mapping of cartographic information to quantitative information.
A particular solution of the inverse problem of a private integrated environmental assessment is found as the difference of the partial objective functions reflecting the average (weighted average) estimates of the anthropogenic impact on the components of the natural environment as a whole foreach block of the grid model and for the sum of the areas of all zones with OGPC in blocks with their presence. Loads to the levels of transformation in private target functions take into account the level of complexity of carrying out environmental measures for each component of the natural environment,their justification is given in the legend of the evaluation maps. After calculating the target functions for the total area of all blocks and the areas of the contours of different levels of impact of the OGPC, total ballots are obtained, and after dividing by area area or area of the OGPC zones – differentiated estimates of anthropogenic disturbance of the Mangystau region territory in each block and in parts of blocks with OGPC .The results of calculations showed that the OGPC .creates an additional load on the relief in the range from 0 to 60.46%, while the method of generalized estimation of the contribution of the OGPC . as a whole in the region gave a value of 16.73%. Thus, the method of differentiated estimation makes itpossible to identify areas where the anthropogenic impact of OGPC . is less than that of other sources, and an analysis of the range of changes in the integral solution in zones with OGPC can serve as the basis for objectifying the differentiated implementation of the polluter pays principle.