Review on modern technologies for seawater desalination and prospects for their development

  • О. А. Зубова Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • А. К. Таныбаева Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • К. Д. Абубакирова Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • К. А. Темирбаева Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • М. Т. Пирниязов Al-Farabi Kazakh National University

Abstract

In article considered the main modern technologies of industrial desalination of seawater, carried out by methods: distillation, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, freezing, and ion exchange. It given the design of softening and desalination devices for seawater, considered technological processes occurring on them. To date, an important task facing both foreign countries and Kazakhstan is the desalination of seawater, treatment, water treatment, since even tap water from urban water supply contains an increased content of salts and various contaminants. To solve this problem, the authors have identified the ecological and economic advantages and disadvantages of the possible application of the above-listed desalination methods for seawaters. Have been studied prospects of large-scale use of atomic energy for desalination of seawater, including the example of the Mangyshlak nuclear power complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan, on which many years of experience in nuclear desalination been developed. In addition, given a brief overview of advanced technologies, which are able to come to replace existing techniques. In particular, considered the methods of desalination of salt water based on shock waves, use of porous nanotubes (Perforene membranes, molybdenum disulfide, and graphene membranes) for separation of salt from water, described desalination plants that operate at the expense of solar energy using hybrid technology, that is, combining the thermal and membrane method of desalting.

Author Biographies

О. А. Зубова, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
т.ғ.к., аға оқытушы
А. К. Таныбаева, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
х.ғ.к., доцент м.а.
К. Д. Абубакирова, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
а.-ш.ғ.д., профессор
К. А. Темирбаева, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
 PhD
М. Т. Пирниязов, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
1 курс магистранты
Published
2017-12-01
How to Cite
ЗУБОВА, О. А. et al. Review on modern technologies for seawater desalination and prospects for their development. Journal of Geography and Environmental Management, [S.l.], v. 44, n. 1, p. 208-220, dec. 2017. ISSN 1563-0234. Available at: <http://bulletin-geography.kaznu.kz/index.php/1-geo/article/view/365>. Date accessed: 15 dec. 2017.